Cryptography or cryptology can be defined as a typical practice as well as the study of different techniques which can secure communication even in the presence of any third party known as adversaries. To be very precise we can say, cryptography is a technical art form for constructing as well as analyzing protocols which can prevent any third party or even public from reading out any private messages. In telecommunications and data industry, cryptography is very important for making communication via any un-trusted medium that includes any type of network, especially the Internet.
There are few standard methods of cryptography which is used to hide secrets.
Apart from the above three methods, there is the Hash function method too. It basically uses a mathematical transformation for irreversibly encrypted information, in the form of a digital fingerprint. Cryptography is responsible for covering 3 essential areas which are authentication, integrity, as well as confidentiality.
We hope the above discussion gave you a rough idea about what cryptography mechanism is and the methods and essentials of it used to hide data. Cryptography is making its presence felt across the globe.