We have heard of Investors and investments many times but never got it through what these terms mean. Investors are those individuals who put money to investments for a bigger return with minimum risk and maximum profit. Investments can sometimes be risky. Thus the investors need to be very careful before investing their time and money to something. There are various varieties in which investments can be done according to one’s interest, but some factors for choosing what, in which and how much to invest are very crucial to keep in mind.
The two most important factors influencing investors preferences are:
As the number of investors is growing in the stock market, so are the frauds and bluffs in the market. There is a high risk of investing in an unreliable investment or a fraud company if certain things about the investments are not taken care of. The risk may be defined as the chance of getting push-back due to uncertainty in profits and returns. Investors face risk until they place their funds in banks.
Risk is further of two types-systematic risk and asset-driven risk. Systematic risk as the name suggests is the risk based on monetary grounds. Issues such as economic crisis, uprising taxes or change in interest rates fall under this category.
Another type is the asset-driven risk. It is non-monetary and is based on loss of the certain type of asset like the product unable to cope up with the latest trends, rise in competition in the market, etc. it may also be due to encountering some issues like labor strike, poor management decisions, etc.
It is a major factor why an individual may decide to invest in some possession. Investment return may be defined as the percentage change in the investment value over a given period of time. The higher the return, the more is the profit to the investor. On the other hand, a very high return may also because of greater investment risk. The profit may be in the form of increased income, bonus, etc.
Hence, these two factors play the most crucial role in an investor’s preference which should be taken care the most!
The most important factor to consider if it is the right time for you to invest is to look at the best use of your money.
For example, wouldn’t it make more sense to pay your debt? The money you are spending on the interest of your high credit card debt may be higher than what you might earn when you invest. For example it makes sense to pay off that credit card debt that is costing you 20% per year, before investing on mutual fund or stocks where you realistically expect to earn 10% or less.
Also more important, you should protect yourself from the financial catastrophes that could wipe out all your investments, or worse, put you into a big burden of debt when they happen. This can be done by buying insurance before investing.
First of all, make sure that you have adequate health insurance, to protect your money against the high cost of being treated for health problems. A disability insurance is also a good idea because a disability can wipe out your savings very fast.
A factor that determines where to invest your money is your objective for investing.
You may want to hopefully grow your money fast and you do not care if you risk it because you have more time to pick yourself up and recover from a downturn. Or your goal is just to preserve your capital in the safest way because you will need your money soon, and it is important that it does not lose its value.
These different goals are compatible with different kinds of investments or mix of investments, as follows:
It is also possible that you can invest for two different goals, such as investing for a house down payment (short term), and investing to retire (long term).
A factor you should consider to determine where to put your investment and how much to invest is your age.
In investing, being young has an advantage. You are able to wait a longer time for your investment to bear fruit. While young, you are also more secure, you do not have a lot of responsibilities, you have more disposable income, and you can pick yourself up easier when you make mistakes. Therefore, when you are young, you can get into investments that are riskier but can potentially earn above average earnings.
Another advantage of being young is that you have more time for compound interest to work for you. Compound interest is earning interest on your interests as well as principal, and this makes your money grow at a faster rate over time.
If you are young, it is not very important to put in a lot of money for investment if you have very long term goal such as retirement.
On the other extreme, if you are middle aged and thinking about retirement, but you are just starting to save for retirement, you should invest the maximum amount you can afford so you can live comfortably when you retire. You should also put your money in a relatively safe investment, so there is very little risk of losing much of it by the time you retire.
Since stocks are relatively riskier investments than bonds, a formula you can follow to determine how much percentage of stocks you should hold (vs. bonds and other safer instruments) is 120 minus your age.
Not everyone invests to retire, some investments have shorter goals. Therefore, another factor you should consider to determine where to invest is the time you have before turning your investment into cash.
The longer you can stay invested, the more you can take risk (and hopefully get more gain) since you can still recover from any potential loss. If you do not have a lot of time and taking a loss would be disastrous to your plan, then it is best to stick to less risky investments like bonds.
Also consider that some investments will cost you charges or penalties if surrendered or redeemed before a holding period. If this is a requirement, make sure that you do not need the money before the prescribed redemption period.
You should also consider the tax implications of withdrawing your investment.
As a general rule, the higher the risk of an investment, the more potential for higher return.
However, not everyone can take risks with their money over a certain level. Not everyone is comfortable with the ups and downs of the stock market, for example. You may be so averse to risking your money that a potential higher rate of return may not be worth the stress and your losing sleep.
If your personality is one who can accept losing money for the possibility of getting much more profit on your investment, choose aggressive investments such as growth stocks.
If you are the more conservative type, choose the relative safety of bonds.
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