Questions Engineering

What are the fundamentals of analytical chemistry?

Airtract

Kanika Tanu

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Chemistry plays a significant part in our daily life. From the starting of the day, till the time be getting back to sleep, chemistry dominates our life. 

Now, chemistry has a lot of sub-branches like organic, inorganic, etc.

Analytical chemistry is an essential concept of chemistry dealing with the especially with measurements using powerful ideas and methods which are necessary for the fields of science, engineering as well as medicine. For example, the explorations at Mars by NASA are all done with the help of analytical chemistry.

Analytical chemistry uses two necessary tools which are:

  • Quantitative Analysis: Involves identifying the species in a given sample.

  • Qualitative Analysis:  States the relative amount of the identified species (analytes) in numeric terms.

Role of Analytical Chemistry:

  • Analytical Chemistry finds its application almost everywhere- industries, medicines and all other branches of science. For example, the effectiveness of the vehicular exhausts is measured by the quantitive analysis of the number of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other gases. The nutritional value of a food is also measured by the quantitive analysis of nitrogen present in food.

How is a typical quantitive analysis done?

Quantitive Analysis is done by following a series of steps which are discussed below:

  • Proper selection of method: The first step requires the variety of a specific purpose, based on the level of precision necessary to analyze the given sample.  

  • Sample Collection: The next step requires the collection of the sample to be analyzed. Proper sampling is a collection of a small mass that represents the composition of the sample in bulk. 

  • Sample Processing: The collected sample needs to be processed to make it fit for the laboratory.  

    It consists of the following steps:

    • Replication of the prepared sample to carry out some tests.

    • Preparations of solution using the processed sample to carry out various physical and chemical tests.

  • Elimination of Interferences:  The next step requires the removal of all the foreign substances (also known as interferents) from the material to be analyzed.

  • Proper calibration: The next step involves determining the proportion between analyte concentration and a particular measured quantity.

  • Result Calculation: The next step is to calculate the concentration from the experimental data mainly with the use of computers.

  • Result in Evaluation by Estimating the Reliability: The final step involves stating the level of accuracy of the calculated results by reporting the level of uncertainties associated with it.

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