The operation of Integrated circuits over a continuous range of the signal is called Analog Integrated Circuits. In this, there are two types of integrated circuits mainly the Linear Integrated Circuits (Linear ICs) and Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits(RF ICs).
The operations of a Linear IC are over a continuous range of signals and are a solid-state Analog device that has an infinite number of operating states. The input and output of a Linear IC are proportional to each other. The functioning of devices used in a Linear IC is in a linear range which consists of the regions such as active region, saturation region and cut off.
The application of Linear Integrated Circuits is basically in the functions of amplification, oscillation, mixing, and modulation. The amplifiers within the headphones are linear ICs. The oscilloscopes which consist of Analog-to-digital converters are also linear ICs. Apart from these, the linear ICs are also used in Phase-locked-loops (PLL) which furnishes clock signal to most digital systems. They have diverse usage in our day to day lives.
Operational amplifiers: The most popular and commonly used linear IC is the Operational Amplifier. Though it is internally quite complex with multiple terminals, it is a highly efficient and resourceful device. It has a wide range of application in the electronic industry and is considered as the fundamental building block in analog circuits.
It is specially used in signal conditioning, analog computation, analog instrumentation, special transfer functions, and special systems design. By taking proper feedback components, operational amplifiers circuits could be used to perform mathematical operations such as subtraction, addition, integration, average, and differentiation are taken into consideration.
Power amplifiers: These are used to increase the magnitude of power of an input signal. By using an external power source it takes a weak signal and reproduces a stronger signal at the output to drive output devices like loudspeakers, headphones, etc.
Small-signal amplifiers: They are referred to as Voltage amplifiers as they normally convert small input voltage levels from sensors or audio signals into a much larger output voltage.
Microwave amplifiers: At low microwave frequencies, traveling wave tube amplifiers are used for high power amplification. They can amplify over a broad spectrum of frequencies. They are used in military and aerospace microwave applications that operate in hostile environmental conditions.
RF and IF amplifiers: An electronic amplifier that converts low power radio frequency signal into a higher power signal is known as radio frequency power amplifier(RF). It is used in transmitting antenna and microwave cavity resonators. The transmitting- receiver antennas are used in weather sensing in the form of radar.
To raise the signal levels in radio and television receivers we use amplifier stages known as intermediate frequency amplifiers (IF). Modern satellite television and FM radio use several intermediate frequencies (IF).
The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—“things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data wi...