Questions Engineering

How do Integrated Circuits (IC) works and what are the applications?

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Nitika Kale

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Integrated Circuits (IC) are also called a microchip or chip, which is defined as a semiconductor wafer on which some capacitors, resistors, and transistors are assembled. These components are generally microscopic. An amplifier act as an  IC functions, computer memory (as a chip) or a microprocessor, etc.;

Basic types of IC and their working

From their functional ability and working procedures, Integrated Circuits (IC) can be categorized according to the following grounds:

Analog versus digital circuits

Analog circuits generally use a few components and are some of the purest forms of ICs. They are connected to other devices which collect signals from the environment or send back them to the situation. Let us take an example of a microphone which converts fluctuating vocal sounds into an electrical signal. A digital circuit is typically designed to accept only voltages of specific given values.

Microprocessor circuits

Microprocessors are assembled with a billion of transistors which have been configured as thousands of individual digital circuits which performs specific logic functions. Microprocessors generally contain the central processing unit(CPU) of a computer. It performs logic function only in one direction. Clock signal quickly alternates between logic gates. Whenever the clock changes its' state, every logic gate performs some actions. Calculations are easy based on the clock frequency.

Each processor has different types of registers. They are permanent and temporary registers. Permanent records generally stores preprogrammed instructions which are required for various operations. Temporary registers stores numbers which are to be operated on and also the results.

Memory circuits

Microprocessors generally store more data compared to registers. Memory stores a short sequence of instructions, or program, for the microprocessor. The size of memory circuits is reduced due to increasing capability.

Digital signal processors

A digital signal is a waveform which can be converted into a series of binary numbers for quick manipulation. It generally takes an audio signal which further simplifies. It is carried out by mathematical operations(addition, subtraction, multiplication, division).DSPs( Digital Signal Processors) are used to produce digital effects on live television.

Radiofrequency ICs

They are typically used in mobile phones and also in various wireless devices. Semiconductor circuits which operate above 500 MHz because electronic components and their respective connecting paths interfere with each other in unusual ways.

Applications

. ICs is used in audio amplifiers, video processors, radio frequency encoders and decoders.

. Almost every electronic device is made up of ICs. They function as calculators, temperature sensors and radio receivers.

.The two main advantages of ICs are cost and performance. Performance is high due to components which switch quickly and consumes less power.

Used in wristwatches.

Also used in televisions.

Used in computers.

Digital signal ICs are used in cellular telephones.

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