Questions Engineering

How are semiconductors made?

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David Kreps

Hustle hard and stay humble

Semiconductors are amorphous and crystalline solid that can conduct electricity under specific circumstances. It is considered to be an effective medium for controlling electrical current. It is primarily used in products and parts related to computers. Whether be it your laptop or smartphone, all of them have semiconductors in them.

Semiconductors are made from materials that contain free electrons in their structure. The electrons move easily between the atoms which as a result allow the free flow of electricity. Silicon is the most common material that is used for the production of semiconductors.

Silicon Semiconductor Manufacturing

  1.  Oxidation: The first stage includes the oxidation of the outside surface of the silicon wafer. This is done for growing a thin layer of silicon dioxide.
  1.  Lithography:  In this process, patterns are formed accurately on the oxidized wafer. The microelectronic circuit is made by adding multiple layers, each layer containing a pattern.
  1.  Etching   With the help of this process, layers of silicon dioxide, polysilicon and metals are removed. This step involves two major types of etching: dry and wet etching. 
  1.  Doping:    This is the step where impurities are added intentionally into the intrinsic semiconductor. This is done to modulate it’s optical, electrical and structural properties.
  1.  Chemical Vapour Deposition:   This step involves the layering of additional material on the surface of the silicon wafer.
  1.  Metallization:   Once the device has been fabricated in the silicon substrate, it is required to be connected to perform circuit functions.

Uses of Semiconductors

The manufacturing of silicon semiconductors involves multiple steps. It involves a sequence of processes that are required to be repeated several times to complete a circuit.

 The manufacturing process begins with a pure silicon wafer which should have 4 to 12 inches of diameter. After which it goes through 6 fabrication processing steps.

Well, now you know how silicon semiconductors are made. The process of manufacturing is a complicated one. 

Semiconductors are considered to be the foundation of modern-day electronic products such as computers, radio, and smartphones. Semiconductors have many uses. They are used in the production of electrical components. Not only that, but it is also very useful in various electronic devices as well. For example, it is used in diodes and transistors.

Semiconductors can be divided into two categories: extrinsic semiconductors and intrinsic semiconductors. Intrinsic semiconductors are very pure whereas extrinsic semiconductors involve the addition of a bit of impurity.

To conclude, it can be stated that semiconductors form the heart of a wide variety of electronic devices. It is primarily made of silicon and is very useful for the industries.


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