A passport can be defined as the travel document, which is issued by the government of the nation to its citizens after making a documental application for the same. It certifies the personal identity as well as the nationality of the holder majorly for the need for international travel.
There are 2 types of passport which are issued to Indian nationals:
The first one is ECR passports
ECR (Emigration Check Required) Passports can again be defined as the passport which is issued to Indians who desire to travel to specific countries for employment. Based on the Emigration Act of 1983, specific passport holders need to procure the Emigration Clearance directly from the POE office of Protector of the Emigrants before traveling to particular countries. For those specific passports that are issued before January of 2007, with no notation mentioned in the passport, it stands that the passport is an ECR passport. If the applicant of this passport is not 10th pass, then it will fall in the ECR category only.
The second one is ECNR or Non- ECR:
Non-ECR, earlier popular as ECNR, stands for Emigration Check Not Required. The resident of India, who has successfully passed his/her 10th class or grade examination or has attained a higher degree in education, then his/her passport will fall under the Non-ECR Category. There are few other exceptions as well, which will fall under the non-ECR category. You can meet the officials associated with the passport office and collect the detail in his regard.
The major difference between these 2 passports is that for ECR passport emigration check is mandatory, and for ECNR, the emigration will not be required. The government introduced this notification in the passport to minimize the level of labor exploitation and to reduce the number of women trafficking.